The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia

Malacolog Version 4.1.1

A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca

The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia


Gastropoda: : Littorinoidea: Littorinidae

Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)


Range: 72.78°N to 38°N; 94°W to 0°W
Depth: 0 to 183 m (live 0 to 46 m)
Maximum Reported Size: 19  mm

Synonymy

Nerita littorea auct. non Linnaeus, 1758
Turbo littoreus auct. non Linnaeus, 1758
Turbo saxatilis Olivi, 1792
Turbo ruber von Salis, 1793
Turbo rudis Maton, 1797
Littorivaga rudis (Maton, 1797) 
Litorina rudis (Maton, 1797) 
Turbo davidis Röding, 1798
Turbo groenlandicus Röding, 1798
Litorina jugosa (Montagu, 1803) 
Turbo jugosus Montagu, 1803
Medoria tenebrosa (Montagu, 1803) 
Litorina tenebrosa (Montagu, 1803) 
Turbo tenebrosus Montagu, 1803
Turbo albocinctus Link, 1807
Turbo diminutus Link, 1807
Litorina obligata (Say, 1822) 
Turbo obligatus Say, 1822
Turbo vestitus Say, 1822
Litorina groenlandica Menke, 1830
Litorina sulcata Menke, 1830
Turbo ventricosus Brown, 1837
Litorina marmorata Pfeiffer, 1839
Littorina nigrolineata Gray, 1839
Littorina incarnata Gould, 1841
Turbo rudissimus Johnston, 1842
Littorina saxatilis Johnston, 1842
Littorina castanea Deshayes, 1843
Littorina neglecta Bean, 1844
Littorina patula Thorpe, 1844
Littorina zonaria Bean, 1844
Nerita rustica Nardo, 1847
Littorina saxoides Nardo, 1847
Littorina costulata Middendorff, 1849
Littorina densecostulata Middendorff, 1849
Littorina elatior Middendorff, 1849
Littorina elatior Middendorff, 1849
Littorina griseolactea Middendorff, 1849
Littorina normalis Middendorff, 1849
Littorina rubida Middendorff, 1849
Littorina tessellata Middendorff, 1849
Littorina zonata Middendorff, 1849
Litorina intermedia Forbes & Hanley, 1850
Littorina albocincta Maitland, 1854
Littorina simplex Reeve, 1857
Littorina compressa auct. non Jeffreys, 1865
Littorina globosa Jeffreys, 1865
Littorina laevis Jeffreys, 1865
Littorina similis Jeffreys, 1865
Littorina adriatica Brusina, 1870
Littorina rubescens Monterosato, 1878
Littorina zonata Daniel, 1883
Littorina finmarchica Herzenstein, 1885
Littorina danieli Locard, 1886
Littorina albida Dautzenberg, 1887
Littorina aurantia Dautzenberg, 1887
Littorina fasciata Dautzenberg, 1887
Littorina livida Dautzenberg, 1893
Littorina nervillei Dautzenberg, 1893
Littorina tessellata Dautzenberg, 1893
Littorina tenebrosapallida L. E. Adams, 1896
Littorina lutea Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900
Littorina sanguinea Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900
Littorina contabulata Martel, 1901
Littorina elongata Martel, 1901
Littorina scalariformis Martel, 1901
Littorina scalariformis Martel, 1901
Littorina abbreviata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina aurantia Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina bynei Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina conoidea Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina contorta Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina elata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina flammulata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina fulva Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina fusca Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina fusca Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina fusca Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina lineata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina lugubris Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina major Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina miniata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina miniata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina minor Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina sinistrorsa Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina trifasciata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina typica Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912
Littorina conoidea Schlesch, 1916
Littorina turritella Schlesch, 1916
Littorina alticola Dacie, 1917
Littorina major Pallary, 1924
Littorina nigra Pallary, 1924
Littorina rufa Pallary, 1924
Littorina sculpta Schlesch, 1931
Littorina sanguinea Coen, 1933
Littorina hieroglyphica Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Jouin, 1961
Littorina interrupta Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Jouin, 1961
Littorina tractibus Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Jouin, 1961
Littorina biinterrupta Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1963
Littorina bizonaria James, 1963
Littorina maculata Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1963
Littorina nojensis Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1964
Littorina sellensis Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1964
Littorina rubrolineata Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Delmas, 1967
Littorina salvati Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Delmas, 1967
Littorina jugosoides James, 1968
Littorina rudissimoides James, 1968
Littorina tenuis James, 1968
Littorina clarilineata Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971
Littorina gascae Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971
Littorina nigra Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971
Littorina rubra Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971
Littorina scotia Sh. Smith, 1979
Littorina lagunae R. Barnes, 1993

Details


Turbo saxatilis Olivi, 1792, p. 172, pl. 5, fig. 3
[Basis of the current name]
Type Locality: Rive del mare, e delle Lagune nostre [Venice lagoon]
Range: 72°N to 38°N; 94°W to 0°W
Depth: 0 to 46 m (live 0 to 46 m)
Maximum Reported Size: 19 mm
Distribution: Greenland: West Greenland, East Greenland; Canada: Nunavut, Baffin Island, Hudson Bay, Labrador, Newfoundland, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick; USA: Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey; Eastern Atlantic: Iceland
References: Thorson (1944) Ll; Macpherson (1971) WM; Rosewater (1978) T; Fretter & Graham (1980) E; Long Island Shell Club (1988) S; Gilkinson & Kent (1992) D; Reid (1996) NS

Littorina saxatilis f. abbreviata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 199
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Nude name.

Littorina adriatica Brusina, 1870 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina albida Dautzenberg, 1887, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Schrenck, 1867.

Littorina albocincta Maitland, 1854, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Nude name.

Turbo albocinctus Link, 1807b, p. 134, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855d-g]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Objective synonym of Turbo groenlandicus Röding, 1798.

Littorina alticola Dacie, 1917 
[Synonym]
References: Bequaert (1943) s; Reid (1996) s

Littorina aurantia Dautzenberg, 1887, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis rudis var. rudissima var. aurantia Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 198, pl. 10, figs. 9-11
[Not available]
Type Locality: Ile S. Lazarro degli Armeni; Lagune de Venise; La Trinité-sur-Mer
References: Reid (1996) s?
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina biinterrupta Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1963, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina bizonaria James, 1963, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina brevis sic, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s?
Comments: Error for laevis Jeffreys by Dautzenberg (1887) fide Dautzenberg & Durouchoux (1900).

Littorina saxatilis jugosa var. bynei Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 195, pl. 9, figs. 22-23, 26-27
[Not available]
Type Locality: Milford Haven et de Bullslaughter Bay (Galles); Morbihan; Galice; Grande-Vidé (Saint-Enogat)
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina castanea Deshayes in Deshayes & Milne-Edwards, 1843, p. 206-207, [Schrot. Fluss. Conch., pl. 9, fig. 16; Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. a, g.]
[Synonym]
Maximum Reported Size: 17 mm
References: Bequaert (1943) s; Reid (1996) s
Comments: Introduced as a replacement name for for L. groenlandica Menke, 1830 (Reid 1996).

Littorina clarilineata Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina compressa auct. non Jeffreys, 1865, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Misidentification; Littorina compressa Jeffreys, 1865 is a valid species restricted to the Eastern Atlantic (Reid 1996).

Littorina saxatilis f. conoidea Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 199
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Nude name.

Littorina conoidea Schlesch, 1916 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina rudis var. globosa monstr. contabulata Martel, 1901b, p. 221, pl. 1 [sic, 13], fig. 4
[Not available]
Type Locality: Port-Mer, Cancale [France]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific monstrosity.

Littorina saxatilis rudis monstr. contortum Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 200, [Sykes 1892, fig. 2-3]
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated [Langton Herring, Fleet backwater (Sykes 1892)]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific monstrosity.

Littorina tenebrosa sculptura costulata Middendorff, 1849b, p. 389, 598, pl. 8, fig. 6-8
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Bequaert (1943) s; Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina danieli Locard, 1886, p. 283
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Environs de Brest, dans le Finistčre
References: Bequaert (1943) s; Reid (1996) sT

Turbo davidis Röding, 1798, p. 88, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855a-b]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Not stated [Faeroe Islands]
References: Bequaert (1943) s; Reid (1996) sT

Littorina tenebrosa sculptura dense-costulata Middendorff, 1849b, p. 598, pl. 8, figs. 16-18
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo diminutus Link, 1807b, p. 134, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855a-b]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Objective synonym of Turbo davidis Röding, 1798.

Littorina saxatilis tenebrosa var. elata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 194, pl. 9, fig. 15
[Not available]
Type Locality: Baie de St. Malo
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rudis f. elatior Middendorff, 1849b, p. 383
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina tenebrosa f. elatior Middendorff, 1849b, p. 388, pl. 8, fig. 22-23
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rudis var. globosa monstr. elongata Martel, 1901a, p. 111, [Martel 1901b:222, pl. 1 {sic, 13}, fig. 8-9
[Not available]
Type Locality: Cancale [France]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific monstrosity.

Littorina fasciata Dautzenberg, 1887, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina finmarchica Herzenstein, 1885 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina saxatilis var. flammulata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 200
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis rudis var. rudissima var. fulva Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 193, 198-199, pl. 10, fig. 12
[Not available]
Attributed to: Monterosato MS
Type Locality: Adriatic; St. Pair [France]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis groenlandica var. fusca Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 199, pl. 10, fig. 21
[Not available]
Type Locality: Vardö
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis jugosa var. fusca Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 195, pl. 9, fig. 19
[Not available]
Type Locality: Embouchure de la Rance
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis rudis var. rudissima var. fusca Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 198, pl. 10, figs. 5-6
[Not available]
Type Locality: La Trinité-sur-Mer
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina gascae Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rudis var. globosa Jeffreys, 1865a, p. 365-366
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Dublin Bay [Ireland]; Oban [Scotland]
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina tenebrosa var. col. griseo-lacteus Middendorff, 1849b, p. 390
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Litorina groenlandica Menke, 1830, p. 45, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855a-b]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Greenland
Range: 72.78°N to 60.12°N; 56°W to 37°W
Depth: 2 to 183 m
Maximum Reported Size: 14 mm
Distribution: Greenland: West Greenland
References: Posselt & Jensen (1899) DdNSEWM; Reid (1996) s
Comments: Objective synonym of Turbo davidis Röding, 1798.

Turbo groenlandicus Röding, 1798, p. 88, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855d-g]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Greenland
Distribution: Greenland
References: Reid (1996) sT

Littorina hieroglyphica Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Jouin, 1961, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rudis var. incarnata Gould, 1841, p. 258
[Synonym]
Attributed to: Lovén MS
Type Locality: Not stated [Britian]
References: Philippi (1846d) s; Bequaert (1943) s

Litorina tenebrosa var. intermedia Forbes & Hanley, 1850b, p. [p. 41], pl. 83, fig. 4
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Non Philippi, 1846.

Littorina interrupta Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Jouin, 1961, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Philippi, 1847.

Littorina jugosoides James, 1968, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo jugosus Montagu, 1803, p. 586-588, [Montagu 1808, pl. 20, fig. 2]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Dorset; St. Ives, Cornwall
Maximum Reported Size: 9.5 mm
References: Montagu (1803) M; Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Reid (1996) sT
Combining Genera:  Litorina

Littorina rudis var. laevis Jeffreys, 1865a, p. 365-366
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Sark and Shetland
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina lagunae R. Barnes, 1993, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis jugosa var. lineata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 195, 200, pl. 9, fig. 21
[Not available]
Type Locality: La Corogne [Spain]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo littoreus auct. non Linnaeus, 1758, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Misidentification by da Costa (1778, in part), Gmelin (1791, in part) and others.
Combining Genera:  Nerita

Littorina livida Dautzenberg, 1893 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina saxatilis var. lugubris Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 193, pl. 9, fig. 7-10
[Not available]
Attributed to: Recluz MS
Type Locality: Morbihan; l'embouchure de l'Escaut; Croisic; Pouliguen; baie de Kiel
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rudis var. lutea Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900, p. 45-46
[Not available]
Type Locality: Environs de Saint-Malo
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Philippi, 1847.

Littorina maculata Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1963, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis rudis var. major Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 197
[Not available]
Attributed to: Kobelt (1888)
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; Kobelt used 'major' as a descriptive adjective, not as a name.

Littorina nervillei var. major Pallary in Seurat, 1924, p. 35
[Not available]
Type Locality: Gightis, Golfe de Gabčs, Tunisie
Maximum Reported Size: 8.5 mm
References: Pallary in Seurat (1924) M; Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Litorina marmorata Pfeiffer, 1839a, p. 82-83, Not figured
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Ostseestrandes bei Travemünde
Maximum Reported Size: 12 mm
References: Pfeiffer (1839a) M; Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Reid (1996) s

Littorina saxatilis groenlandica var. miniata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 199, pl. 10, fig. 22
[Not available]
Type Locality: Nord de l'Islande
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis rudis var. rudissima var. miniata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 198, pl. 10, fig. 8
[Not available]
Type Locality: La Trinité-sur-Mer
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis f. minor Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 199
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Nude name.

Littorina neglecta Bean, 1844 
[Synonym]
References: Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Johannesson & Johannesson (1990a, b) s; Reid (1996) sT
Comments: L. neglecta reported from Nova Scotia by Robertson & Mann (1982) are L. saxatilis form tenebrosa (Johannessonn & Johannesson, 1990a).

Littorina nervillei Dautzenberg, 1893 
[Synonym]
References: Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Reid (1996) s

Littorina nigra Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina nervillei var. major var. nigra Pallary in Seurat, 1924, p. 35
[Not available]
Type Locality: Gightis, Golfe de Gabčs, Tunisie
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina nigro-lineata Gray, 1839, p. 140, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1854-1855?]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Not stated
Maximum Reported Size: 14.7 mm
References: Gray (1839) M; Reid (1996) sT
Comments: The type material of L. nigrolineata proves to be a form of L. saxatilis; the species often known as L. nigrolineata is L. compressa Jeffreys, 1865 (Reid 1996).

Littorina nojensis Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1964, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina tenebrosa f. normalis Middendorff, 1849b, p. 388, 390, pl. 8, figs. 9-12, 19-21
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo obligatus Say, 1822a, p. 241
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Portland, Maine
Distribution: USA: Maine
References: Gould (1841) s; Reid (1996) sT
Combining Genera:  Litorina

Littorina patula Thorpe, 1844, 
[Synonymy uncertain]
References: Reid (1996) s?
Comments: May be an earlier name for L. arcana (Reid 1996).

Turbo ruber von Salis, 1793, p. 377, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855c?]
[Synonymy uncertain]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s?

Littorina rudis var. rubescens Monterosato, 1878b, p. 83
[Not available]
Type Locality: Lagune Venete
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Nude name.

Littorina tenebrosa var. col. rubidus Middendorff, 1849b, p. 390
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rubra Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1971, 
[Not available]
Attributed to: Philippi (1846)
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; Philippi (1846) used 'rubra' as an adjective, not a name.

Littorina rubrolineata Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Delmas, 1967, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo rudis Maton, 1797, p. 277, [Donovan 1800, 1, pl. 33, fig. 3]
[Synonym]
Type Locality: One and half miles from Bere Alston on the Tavey, Devonshire, England
Range: 60°N to 41°N; 72.5°W to 55°W
Depth: 0 m (live 0 m)
Distribution: Greenland, Canada: Nunavut, Hudson Bay, Labrador; USA: Maine, New York
References: S. Smith (1860) SW; Procter (1933) NE; Janson (1985) s; Warwick et al. (1990) s; Reid (1996) sT
Combining Genera:  Litorina Littorivaga

Littorina rudissimoides James, 1968, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo rudissimus Johnston, 1842 
[Synonym]
Attributed to: Bean, 1844
References: Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Reid (1996) sT
Comments: Name introduced in synonymy of L. rudis, first used as valid by Bean, 1844.

Littorina nervillei var. major var. rufa Pallary in Seurat, 1924, p. 35
[Not available]
Type Locality: Gightis, Golfe de Gabčs, Tunisie
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Reeve, 1857.

Nerita rustica Nardo, 1847, 
[Not available]
Attributed to: Chiereghini MS
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Name introduced in synonymy of L. saxoides.

Littorina salvati Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Delmas, 1967, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis var. sanguinea Coen, 1933, p. 30-31
[Not available]
Type Locality: West Adriatic [Venezia (Coen 1937)]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Nude name.

Littorina rudis var. sanguinea Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900, p. 45-46
[Not available]
Type Locality: Environs de Saint-Malo
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis Johnston, 1842 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Homonym and synonym of L. saxatilis Olivi, 1792.

Littorina saxoides Nardo, 1847 
[Synonym]
Attributed to: Chiereghini MS
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina rudis var. sulcata monstr. scalariformis Martel, 1901a, p. 111, [Martel 1901b:221, pl. 1 {sic, 13}, fig. 5]
[Not available]
Type Locality: Port-Mer, Cancale [France]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific monstrosity.

Littorina rudis var. globosa monstr. scalariformis Martel, 1901b, p. 221, pl. 1 [sic, 13], fig. 6
[Not available]
Type Locality: Port-Mer, Cancale [France]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific monstrosity.

Littorina rudis var. scotia Sh. Smith, 1979, p. 138-139
[Not available]
Type Locality: Rockall, 57°36.20'N, 13°41.32'W [Rockall Bank, United Kingdom]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina sculpta Schlesch, 1931, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina sellensis Fischer-Piette & Gaillard, 1964, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina rudis var. smilis Jeffreys, 1865a, p. 365-366
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Cornwall, South Wales, Aberdeenshire, and Shetland
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina simplex Reeve, 1857,  pl. 12, fig. 63a-b
[Synonym]
Type Locality: St. Vincent, Cape de Verds [In error, probably Arctic (Reid 1996)]
References: Bequaert (1943) s; Reid (1996) sT

Littorina saxatilis rudis monstr. sinistrorsum Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 200, [Sykes 1892, fig. 1]
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated [Langton Herring, Fleet backwater (Sykes 1892)]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific monstrosity.

Litorina sulcata Menke, 1830, p. 45, [Chemnitz, 1781, pl. 185, fig. 1855f-g]
[Synonym]
Attributed to: Leach
Type Locality: Not stated [Greenland]
References: Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Reid (1996) sT
Comments: Objective synonym of Turbo groenlandicus Röding, 1798.

Littorina tenebrosapallida L. E. Adams, 1896 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s

Turbo tenebrosus Montagu, 1803, p. 303-304
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Devonshire; Kent
Range: 45°N to 41.5°N; 71°W to 0°W
Depth: 0 m
Maximum Reported Size: 9 mm
Distribution: USA: Maine, Massachusetts
References: Procter (1933) NS; Clarke (1954a); Fretter & Graham (1980) E; Janson & Ward (1985) s; Gilkinson & Kent (1992) M; Reid (1996) sT
Combining Genera:  Litorina Medoria

Littorina tenuis James, 1968, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Philippi, 1846.

Littorina tessellata Dautzenberg, 1893, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Philippi, 1847.

Littorina tenebrosa var. col. tessellatus Middendorff, 1849b, p. 390
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Philippi, 1847.

Littorina tractibus Fischer-Piette, Gaillard & Jouin, 1961, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina saxatilis rudis var. rudissima var. trifasciata Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, p. 198, 200, pl. 10, figs. 15-16
[Not available]
Type Locality: Le Val André
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Littorina turritella Schlesch, 1916 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s

Littorina typica Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1912, 
[Not available]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific.

Turbo ventricosus Brown, 1837 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Non Woodward, 1833.

Turbo vestita Say, 1822a, p. 241-242
[Synonym]
Type Locality: Maine
Distribution: USA: Maine
References: Dautzenberg & Fischer (1912) s; Reid (1996) sT

Littorina zonaria Bean, 1844 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) sT

Littorina zonata Daniel, 1883 
[Synonym]
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Non Menke, 1845.

Littorina tenebrosa var. col. zonatus Middendorff, 1849b, p. 390
[Not available]
Type Locality: Not stated
References: Reid (1996) s
Comments: Infrasubspecific; non Menke, 1845.


Partial List of References

Coen, G. [S.] 1933. Saggio di una sylloge molluscorum Adriaticorum. R. Comitato Talassografico Italiano, Memoria 192: vii + 186 + [3], 10 pls.
Dautzenberg, P. and H. Fischer. 1912. Mollusques provenant des campagnes de l'Hirondelle et de la Princess-Alice dans les Mers du Nord. Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques du Prince de Monaco 37: 631 pp., 2 maps, 11 plates. [Stated date: 15 Jun 1912.]
Dautzenberg, P. and P. Durouchoux. 1900. Faunule Malacologique des environs de Saint-Malo. La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes 31: 39-62. [Stated date: 01 Dec 1900; true date: pre 14 Dec.]
Deshayes, G. P. and H. Milne-Edwards. 1843. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertčbres. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertčbres, vol. 9: iv + 728 pp.
Forbes, E. and S. Hanley. 1850. A History of British Mollusca, and their Shells. A History of British Mollusca 3: pp. 1-320, pls. EE, GG-HH, JJ-LL, OO-PP, XX, 75-76, 80-93, 115-121. John van Voorst: London.
Gould, A. A. 1841. Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts.  xiii + 373 pp. Commissioners on the Zoological and Botanical Survey of the State: Cambridge, Massachusetts. [True date: pre Oct.]
Gray, J. E. 1839. Molluscous animals, and their shells. The Zoology of Captain Beechey's Voyage 101-142, pls. 33-38 Henry G. Bohn: London. [Stated date: -- Jul 1839.]
Jeffreys, J. G. 1865. British conchology. British Conchology 3: [ii] + 393 pp., frontispiece, 8 pls. John Van Voorst: London.
Link, H. F. 1807. Beschreibung der Naturalien-Sammlung der Universitat zu Rostock 3.  pp. [i-ii] + 101-165. Rostock. [Stated date: 17 May 1807.]
Locard, A. 1886. Catalogue Général des Mollusques Vivants de France--Mollusques Marins.  x + 779. Henri Georg: Genčve et Bale.
Martel, H. 1901. Liste de coquilles marines, terrestres & d'eau douce, recueillies aux environs de Cancale. Premičre partie -- Coquilles marines (suite). La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes (4)31: 109-114. [Stated date: 01 Feb 1901; true date: pre 11 Feb.]
Martel, H. 1901. Liste des coquilles marines, recueillies a Cancale: Explication des planches. La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes (4)31: 221-222, pl. 13. [Stated date: 01 Jul 1901; true date: pre 12 Jul.]
Maton, W. G. 1797. Observations relative chiefly to the natural history, picturesque scenery, and antiquities, of the western counties of England, made in the years 1794 and 1796. Observations Relative Chiefly to the Natural History...of the Western Counties of England 1: xi + 336 pp., 8 pls.
Menke, K. T. 1830. Synopsis methodica Molluscorum.  xvi + 169. Author: Pyrmont. [Stated date: -- --- 1830; true date: post 12 Apr.]
Middendorff, A. T. von. 1849. Beiträge zu einer Malacozoologia Rossica. II. Aufzählung und Beschreibung der zur Meeresfauna Russlands gehörigen einschaler. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg, Sciences Naturelles (6)6: 329-516, pls. 1-11.
Montagu, G. 1803. Testacea Britannica.  [iii] + xxxix + 606 + [4]. J. S. Hollis: Romsey. [True date: post Sept 1.]
Monterosato, [T. A.] di. 1878. Enumerazione e sinonimia delle conchiglie Mediterranee. Giornale di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche 13: 61-115.
Olivi, G. 1792. Zoologia Adriatica.  [ix] + 334 + xxxii pp., 9 pls. [Stated date: post 10 May.]
Pfeiffer, L. 1839. Beschreibung einer neuen Litorina, nebst Bemerkungen über die Konchylien des Ostseestrandes bei Travemünde. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 5(1): 81-84.
Reeve, L. 1857. Monograph of the genus Littorina. Conchologia Iconica 10: pls. 1-16
Röding, P. F. 1798. Museum Boltenianum.  viii + 199 pp. Hamburg. [Stated date: -- Sep 1798.]
Say, T. 1822. An account of some of the marine shells of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2: 221-248, 257-276, 302-325. [Stated date: -- Jun 1822; true date: -- Jul 1822.]
Seurat, L. G. 1924. Observations sur les limites, les facičs et les associations animales de l'étage intercotidal de la petite Syrte (Golfe de Gabčs). Bulletin, Station Océanographique de Salammbô 3: 72 pp., 1 fold-out map.
Smith, S. 1979. Littorina rudis var scotia and its adaptation to the extreme environment of Rockall (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Porcupine Newsletter 1: 138-139. [Stated date: -- May 1979.]
von Salis, C. U. 1793. Reisen in verschiedne Provinzen des Königreichs Neapel. Reisen in Verschiedne Provinzen des Königreichs Neapel 1: 442 [+2], 10 pls. Ziegler und Söhne: Zurich and Leipzig. [Stated date: -- --- 1793.]

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